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Lifestyle Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial for Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD-Life): Study Design

Nutrients – 2023


Alexandra P. M. de Koning-Backus, Jessica C. Kiefte-de Jong, Jeroen G. J. van Rooij, AMD-Life Team André G. Uitterlinden, Trudy G. Voortman, Magda A. Meester-Smoor, Caroline C. W. Klaver





Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has a strong genetic basis, but environmental factors such as smoking and a healthy diet can decrease the genetic fate by up to 50%. Current guidelines for clinical management include recommendations for a healthy lifestyle and antioxidant supplementation. However, many ophthalmologists do not inform their patients of this AMD-beneficial lifestyle. An important reason is the lack of trust that transition of lifestyle will be feasible in persons of advanced age and lack of methodology to measure lifestyle or its biological effects. To address these issues, we set up the lifestyle intervention study AMD-Life. It aims to investigate whether personalized risk-profiling (including genetic testing) and/or additional coaching can motivate patients to change their lifestyle. It also explores which biomarkers best reflect lifestyle change beneficial for AMD. The first year is a three-arm, self-contained open-label randomized clinical trial. A total of 150 AMD patients aged 55–85 years were randomized into three arms: (A) merely standard recommendations; (B) A conditions plus personalized risk profiling based on genetics and lifestyle, (C) B conditions plus coaching. The second year tests sustainability of lifestyle changes without active intervention. AMD-Life can provide further insight into the relevance of these interventions for the clinical management of AMD.


age-related macular degeneration; lifestyle; nutrients; Mediterranean diet; genetic testing; personalized risk-profiling; gut microbiome; behavioral change technique; coaching